An Introduction to Black Holes, Information And The String by Leonard Susskind

By Leonard Susskind

Over the past decade the physics of black holes has been revolutionized by means of advancements that grew out of Jacob Bekenstein's attention that black holes have entropy. Steven Hawking raised profound concerns in regards to the lack of details in black gap evaporation and the consistency of quantum mechanics in a global with gravity. for 2 a long time those questions questioned theoretical physicists and at last resulted in a revolution within the approach we expect approximately house, time, subject and data. This revolution has culminated in a notable precept referred to as "The Holographic Principle", that's now an enormous concentration of recognition in gravitational learn, quantum box concept and effortless particle physics. Leonard Susskind, one of many co-inventors of the Holographic precept in addition to one of many founders of String thought, develops and explains those recommendations.

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A particle of high angular momentum, whether on the inside or outside of the barrier will have more difficulty penetrating through. 15) Near the Horizon Near the horizon the exterior of the black hole may be described by the Rindler metric dτ = ρ2 dω 2 − dρ2 − dX 2 − dY 2 It is useful to replace ρ by a tortoise-like coordinate which again goes to −∞ at the horizon. 18) where ∂⊥ χ = (∂X , ∂Y ). 21) The correspondence between the momentum vector k and the angular momentum is given by the usual connection between momentum and angular momentum.

That fluctuation can be thought of as a conventional fluctuation described by the quantum Hamiltonian HR . The fluctuation (b) contained in Region III has no significance to the Fidos in Region I. Finally there are loops like (c) which are partly in Region I but which also enter into Region III. These are the fluctuations which lead to nontrivial entanglements between the degrees of freedom χL and χR , and which cause the density matrix of Region I to be a mixed state. Quantum Fields in Rindler Space 41 8 ω= (a) (c) (b) 8 ω=− Fig.

However, once the horizon is crossed, their observations cannot be communicated to any Fido or to a distant observer. 19. 35) where pZ and pT are the Z and T components of momentum, and m is the mass of the particle. As the particle freely falls past the horizon, the components pZ and pT may be regarded as constant or slowly varying. They are the components seen by Frefos. 37) 4M G Thus we find the momentum of an infalling particle as seen by a Fido grows exponentially with time! 38) ρ(t) ≈ ρ(0)exp(− 4M G Locally the relation between the coordinates of the Frefos and Fidos is a time dependent boost along the radial direction.

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