By Stefan Grimm (eds.)
This booklet discusses the emergence of a brand new type of genes with a selected anticancer job. those genes, lately outlined as “Anticancer Genes”, are reviewed in person chapters on their mode of motion, the explicit telephone demise signs they set off, and the prestige of makes an attempt to translate them into medical application.
Anticancer Genes presents an summary of this nascent box, its genesis, present nation, and prospect. It discusses how Anticancer Genes may well bring about the identity of a repertoire of signaling pathways directed opposed to mobile changes which are particular for tumor cells.
With contributions from specialists around the globe, Anticancer Genes is a necessary advisor to this dynamic subject for researchers and scholars in melanoma study, molecular medication, pharmacology and toxicology and genetics in addition to clinicians and scientific researchers drawn to the healing power of this fascinating new field.
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Extra info for Anticancer Genes
J Biol Chem 278(30):27729–27736 18. Heilman DW et al (2006) Apoptin nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is required for cell typespecific localization, apoptosis, and recruitment of the anaphase-promoting complex/ cyclosome to PML bodies. J Virol 80(15):7535–7545 19. Poon IK et al (2005) Apoptin nuclear accumulation is modulated by a CRM1-recognized nuclear export signal that is active in normal but not in tumor cells. Cancer Res 65(16):7059–7064 20. Rohn JL et al (2002) A tumor-specific kinase activity regulates the viral death protein Apoptin.
2 Signalling of Apoptin 31 Fig. 6 Proposed model of Apoptin action in tumor cells. In tumor cells Apoptin expression induces activation of protein kinase C β (PKCβ) which in turn binds to and phosphorylates Apoptin. Both proteins translocate to the nucleus where Apoptin triggers activation of pro-apoptotic TAp73 isoforms. This results in transactivation of the ubiquitin ligase PIR2 which selectively promotes the degradation of ΔNp73 isoforms to relieve their inhibitory effect on TAp73. Stabilized TAp73 can then induce the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins such as PUMA that transmits the apoptotic stimulus to the mitochondria to trigger cytochrome c release and subsequent caspase activation and cell death.
In addition, recent evidence also points to a potential role of protein phosphatases in regulating Apoptin phosphorylation and function. 5 Interacting Proteins To exert its tumor-specific cytotoxicity Apoptin needs to become activated to be able to trigger cellular signalling pathways. Several cellular proteins have been identified to interact or co-localize with Apoptin and affect its cytotoxic function or 20 J. Bullenkamp and M. 1 Apoptin interaction partners Protein Biological function Protein Kinase C β (PKCβ) Binding of Apoptin to PKCβ results in PKCβ-dependent phosphorylation and activation of Apoptin and nuclear translocation of PKCβ Fas-associated protein with Overexpression causes co-localization of FADD and death domain (FADD) Apoptin in cytoplasmic death effector filaments, potentially interfering with death receptor signalling Bcl-10 Apoptin and the NF-κB regulator Bcl-10 co-localize in cytoplasmic filaments with a yet unknown consequence Protein Kinase G (PKG-I) High levels of PKG-I in normal cells correlate with lower Apoptin activation, however the precise role for PKG-I during Apoptin-induced cell death remains unclear PI3-Kinase (PI3K) and Akt Apoptin binds to the p85 subunit of PI3K, activating PI3K which results in sustained activation and nuclear translocation of Akt.